How to Save Money While Traveling


As you all know, I love to travel. Exploring a new city is exciting, enthralling, and sometimes overwhelming. With a packed itinerary and a list of fun activities, you may not prioritize sitting down for a lengthy lunch but after a long day of adventuring, a satisfying, filling meal is all that one desires. However, when you’re in a new place, how do you find an affordable restaurant that helps you explore local cuisine yet doesn’t break the bank? Thanks to the wonderful creators at Groupon, you can discover delicious restaurants and their fantastic deals with a few clicks of your fingers.

Groupon Restaurants is a directory of restaurants all over the United States that will help facilitate finding a place to eat, whether you’re in a new city or wanting to try something different in your hometown. Some cities, such as New York City, have a vast and, depending on location, expensive food selection. To find restaurants that match your needs, simply search the type of food you’re craving, for example French restaurants in New York, New York, and a list of establishments offering that cuisine will populate. A.O.C. on Bleecker Street is a French cafe that serves breakfast, lunch and dinner. Its Groupon page provides crucial details about the restaurant, such as the address, phone number, hours of operation, and a link to their website.

bistroGroupon Restaurants also breaks down frequently asked questions that detail the price range, attire, whether the restaurant delivers, if reservations can be made, if food options for vegetarians, gluten free individuals, or children menus are available, and if takeout and alcohol are served. The editors of the page further summarize the restaurant, describing what it’s known for and if it has won any awards. If you want to stay in the area afterwards for drinks, the page provides a handy interactive map with nearby locations to explore and any deals those businesses may be offering.

So next time you’re craving a meal out, whether it’s your first time in the area or your hundredth, and you want to try something new without stretching your wallet or spending hours perusing random “best of” lists on the internet, head to Groupon Restaurants to make your next meal search seamless and affordable.

A Week In A Holiday Cottage in Dorset


I have been travelling for a couple of years now and something awesome was just about to happen. I will never forget the unique experience that I got when I decided to spend the week in a holiday cottage in Dorset in the South West of England.

Being in my late 20’s, this was one of the special moments that you wish would go on forever and you always want to keep the memories alive. The place is breathtaking with beauty embedded all over the place. With a Jurassic coast, you will always have to prepare yourself for what’s coming, an epic excursion and a wide selection of endless fun activities. You can never dream of a better experience.

Once in Dorset, you may decide to look for a romantic cottage together with you and your partner, or just a quiet relaxing break on your own. It all depends on what you like. The magnificent seaside and coastline will most certainly evoke feelings and emotions that only you know, my time spent in Dorset was full of beautiful sunshine, and I had the perfect weather which made for a great relaxing break.

First, while in Dorset, you will not be bothered by any hectic outside surrounding as Dorset is located in a natural serene environment away from main roads, and at times seems a bit undiscovered. The Dorset Jurassic coast is England’s first natural World heritage site and stretches from East Devon to the Isle of Purbeck. If you like to see natural wonders, then you will not have missed a thing when you view the geological marvels such as Durdle door, a naturally formed stone arch, just a short distance into the sea. The South West Coastal path allows you to have a magnificent view of other natural stone features such as Old Harry Rocks, which is a set of three chalk formations which are still standing on their own, regardless of the many centuries of erosion. These Chalk formations are conveniently located near the holiday cottages.

Once you make your way to Poole a lot of wild sea birds can be seen in the second biggest natural harbor in the world.  When you are in Poole, you will enjoy windsurfing from Poole’s Sandbanks and you can have your favorite delicacy in the nearby restaurants and shops.

The inland stretch has a sweeping view of the natural landscapes which is reminiscent of the ancient Dorset and Iron Age hill forts such as Maiden Castle, and the Giant found in Cerne Abbas. If you decide to stay inland, you can choose from a wide selection of holiday cottages in Shaftesbury.

There was so much to discover on my thrilling travel experience, you can never get enough of Dorset and the neighboring villages such as Piddletrenthide, Mappowder, Plush, Worth Matravers and Bingham Melcombe’s. Strange names? Well, you will want to discover what’s there for yourself.

So if your looking for a breathtaking week, why not consider spending it in a holiday cottage in Dorset, and enjoy England’s first Natural World Heritage Site.

My Big China Adventure

Great Wall Of China

It might be that this is an addiction, but as I get closer to my thirties the traveling bug is stronger than ever. I want to continue visiting amazing sites, meeting more incredible people and learning more about the world.

China has been so far the country best fitted to explore endlessly and accumulate the most fantastic array of experiences but I must admit that planning a tour of China can be overwhelming: there is so much to see that you have to research your trip really well. Your research should leave you with a bunch of priority places you definitely want to see and some more to put on your list if there is time and resources to include them at the last minute.

Great Wall of ChinaI know I should have included more on my trip, but I didn’t want to be in a hurry and I didn’t want to feel like I was just ticking boxes like a typical tourist. Although everyone visits the Great Wall of China (and it was indeed in my list of priorities) I wanted to have cities, history and nature in the same trip. I needed a lot of stamina to walk through it and negotiate my space among tourists and locals up and down steps, but negotiating your space in China becomes a routine no matter where you go.

Xian Terracota warriors    In the historic city of Xian I wanted to see the amazing Terracota warriors and the city wall. This experience was much more interesting than I had anticipated and I probably took more pictures than in any other site because with a good camera lens, you can’t help it but to start looking for the individual differences between statues identifying each warrior. You will never be prepared for the size of this monument. I wasn’t very successful at catching the sight the way I wanted, but it still proved to be a very interesting place to visit.

Yangtze river  As part of the nature side of my trip, I immediately thought about pandas but I was not willing to sacrifice other natural sites for the sake of these adorable creatures, so I took a cruise on the Yangtze river disembarking in Chongqin. The tour included the Three Gorges Dam and I must admit that the landscape was incredibly dramatic at all times. I was amazed at the jade-coloured waters in some areas and the amount of green vegetation populating every hill and mountain above the water.

The typical pictures of Chinese landscapes must have all been taken from this trip! Pandas to me are almost unreal, perhaps because I had a toy panda when I was a little girl and it was a surprise to realise they actually existed. However after being at the Chongqin zoo, I can testify that they actually exist and although not as fluffy and adorable as my childhood toy, they are quite puzzling animals. I also got to learn about red pandas. The cuteness of this native of East Asia took me by surprise and I think they are now my favorite animal.

ShanghaiMy trip to China also had to include Shanghai and I must admit that this city made up for a well rounded trip to China. Its mixture of traditional, modern and futuristic China is not to be missed. Between the 1920s European architecture, the food stalls and the skyscrapers (and the shopping) it completed my journey in style and made me feel that I had got a good take on what China has to offer.

Although I must admit there is so much more to see I am craving to come back. Gladly I managed to pack a red panda toy that will keep reminding me of the great time I had.

Thrilling Adventures in The States

Florida Sunshine State

What is a better way of spending your free time than having a life thrilling adventure? Well, they say that you only live once and life is too short thus you should live your life to the fullest. Personally, as far as living life to the fullest is concerned, going on an adventure tops the list, quite evident from the far and wide travelling around the world I have been in; this is a healthy, active and informative way of living. Well, having a nice and thrilling adventure does not necessarily mean having to travel around the world, there are various attractive destinations locally. You can save money on tickets to American attractions and have yourself enjoying your life to the fullest on a convenient budgeting. We are going to look at some of the thrilling adventure attraction sites in the state of Florida.

Madame Tussauds Orlando

Renown worldwide for celebrity wax attraction; you are sure to experience the ultimate life thrilling fame experience with a complimentary signature red carpet treatment. You will have a once in a life time opportunity to take photos with your favorite A list celebrities, play with legendary sporting athletes and get to be on stage with international pop stars. All this go for as low as £16 for adults and £12 for children.

LegolandLEGOLAND Florida

Although purported to target young ones roughly aged between 2 and 12 years, that does not really matter. Even adults do need fun and what’s more fun than going on a nice adventure alongside children! You will experience over 50 rides and amazing thousands of shows, activities and LEGO models at the 150 acre theme park. You can experience all this for as low as £37 for kids and £42 for adults.


Fondly referred to as the alligator capital of the world, you are sure to find real and thrilling adventure in Gatorland. Gatorland is one of the oldest attraction sites in Florida; it does offer natural and unique experiences similar to those of large theme parks. Both adult and children tickets do go for as low as £10.

Kennedy Space CenterKennedy Space Center

Interested in learning more of NASA story? Well, the Kennedy Space Centre is the right destination for you. Here you will get the opportunity to tour the astonishing and unforgettable Rocket Garden or board an amazing full scale Space Shuttle Explorer replica. You can experience all this from as low as £25 for children and £30 for adults.

Aquatica OrlandoAquatica Orlando

Aquatica Orlando is a one of a kind water park. Here you will get a chance to play with dolphins, slide on tube slides and relax by the rapid rivers and white sandy beaches from as low as £92 for adults and £87 for children.

Wet ‘n Wild Orlando

This is America’s most attended and popular water park. It is a perfect get away for the entire family where you can enjoy endless hours of play with water in the sun. This goes for as low as £29 for kids and £31for adults.

The above are just but some of the various sites you can have fun and life thrilling adventures and experiences at convenient pricing. Truly, there is no excuse not to have fun, go out there and see the world!

Krakow Poland Stag Time

Krakow nightlife

A stag celebration should be nostalgic. A bachelor bent on recalling their bachelorhood with nostalgia needs to visit Krakow for their stag do celebrations.

Krakow, with a population of about 755,000 people is Poland’s second largest city located in the South of the country. Though, seemingly laid-back in comparison to Warsaw, Krakow possesses a relaxed ambiance that its old town epitomizes. Prior to visiting  Krakow sometime back, I longed to see the two most iconic attractions for which it is known although these were not on my principal agenda for visiting the city.

WawelThe first was the Wawel Castle, which happens to be Poland’s most iconic landmark and the second was its majestic market square touted as the largest in Europe. I was not in the least disappointed as the two proved more magnificent than I had imagined. The city also hosts several beautiful museums and churches.

I visited Krakow principally for its suitability for stag celebrations. Am hinting at alcohol and partying for which Krakow hosts more bars and pubs per square meter than any other place in the world! The drinks are cheap with a pint costing an average of £1.50! To sweeten the celebrations and ease hopping from one pub to the other, the city is compact allowing revelers to visit its hotspots on foot.

Le Scandale and Hard Rock Café offer some of the best cocktails in Krakow while one can play a variety of games such as Super Mario Bros at Cybermachina as they enjoy cheap drinks. In addition to visiting the pubs, I found it interesting to visit Krakow’s biggest brewery and beer hall that are housed in an old tram depot.

Krakow CellerDuring the day, party-goers can engage in some masculine activities such as shooting Kalashnikovs, indoor karting in 200cc super-karts at speeds of 70kph and white water rafting on a course regularly used for European and World Championship events.

After engaging in high-adrenaline activities for most of the daytime, Krakow generously offers party-goers, evenings they can spend watching oiled up lovelies wrestle each other. Alternatively patrons can sample the Tottie Tour- where they are taken to three of the nastiest strip clubs in the city over a 6-hour period.

Krakow GirlsWatching lovelies doing their thing may not be on everyone’s evening itinerary and for this reason Krakow offers other excellent nightlife activities as evidenced by the friendly and laid back locals who fill up the city’s pubs, cellar bars and nightclubs on every street. In many occasions, the residents of a place are its greatest source of fun for party-goers. A third of Krakow’s population is made up of party-loving students with the vast majority being female!

Getting to Krakow from different places across Europe is a bit involved but the fun one that starts upon landing is well worth the hustle. Ryanair is the only budget airline that makes the two and half hour journey from Stansted on a daily basis and travelers have to book early, say a month in advance to enjoy low prices of around £66. Other airlines such as Easyjet, Lufthansa or Austrian Airlines makes several trips per week but are a bit more expensive.

In all, Krakow cracks the can of fun open for men seeking adventure to enjoy stag celebrations in style.

Romantic Retreats to Take Your Partner to This Winter

Thai Beach

Winter is the perfect time of year to take a romantic break with someone special. Whether you are a snow bunny or prefer soaking up the sun on a beautiful tropical beach, there are plenty of great places to choose from. Here are a few romantic retreat ideas to get you started.

The Alps
Curling up next to a log fire in a cosy chalet in the Alps is a romantic experience that should not be missed. Adrenaline junkies will be able to take part in a wide range of activities during the daytime such as skiing, The Alpssnowboarding and ice skating, while the chilling evenings are ideal for simply unwinding by the fire with a bottle of wine while watching the beautiful scenery through the window.

People who are in search of a traditional Christmas experience are sure to love taking a romantic break in Lapland. Couples can choose to sleep in a domed igloo and wake in the morning to the sight of a real winter wonderland. Spend the day huddled up in a sleigh with your partner as you ride through the valleys and at night you might be lucky enough to see the Northern Lights as they transform the sky with dramatic colours.

Spending a few days in the city of love is the perfect way to beat the winter blues. There are plenty of romantic activities that can be enjoyed in Paris, such as taking a boat trip along the Seine and enjoying an intimate meal in a cosy restaurant. People who arrange car excess cover policy in advance will also be able to spend time exploring the countryside surrounding Paris along the way, perhaps taking the time to sample locally produced wine at one of the area’s enchanting vineyards.

Koh Samet
Those who prefer to leave the snow far Koh Sametbehind them can work on their tans on this tiny island in Thailand. While the main beach is lined with bars and restaurants, Candlelight Beach in the south of the island offers a romantic retreat complete with luxurious cabins close to the sea. Spend the day snorkeling in the crystal clear waters that lap the white sandy beach and enjoy a relaxing massage before watching the sunset while sipping a cool cocktail or two and enjoying a romantic meal just for two.

Koh Bong
While Cambodia is famous for its ancient temples and jungles, most tourists tend to overlook to picturesque island of Koh Bong. That makes this a great place to really get away from the hustle and bustle of modern life and enjoy plenty of pampering while staying at one of the island’s world class resorts.

Snorkeling the Sea in the Maldives


The title really says it all. We see these long stretches of beautiful beaches and clear blue water when we think of the Maldives. But what’s under all that blue water? It’s a whole other world down below, but maybe you’re not ready to go diving. Snorkeling is the best middle ground, so grab your mask and see what’s below!

Where you should snorkel:

While in the Maldives, and most other areas in the world, look out for those reefs! Those are the spots that are usually teeming with wildlife, not snorkelingto mention, the spectacularly colored coral helps makes those underwater views that much more breathtaking. The reefs provide slopes, caves, and terraces and all of those provide more opportunities for exotic marine life. The coral can change and so can the animals in these different areas.

Top places to snorkel:

Many of the islands can be snorkeled as easily as it’s to get in the water. Just hop in, put your face down and enjoy the show. If this is not possible where you re staying, there will be a boat tour to take you to some of the best snorkeling islands and reefs the Maldives has to offer. When staying at the One & Only Reethi Rah in the Maldives, they will take into consideration your needs and help find the perfect underwater tour for you.

What can I see?

Plenty! An exotic array of marine life is just beneath your feet. There are around 70 different species of coral and over 700 species of fish and other water critters. Dogtooth Tuna, Trevally’s, Jacks, Tuna, Sweetlips, Mating octopus, Wahoo, and Butterfly fish are just  few of the fish you can see. Be sure to keep your eyes open for octopus, rays, eels, turtles, sharks, and of course an array of coral and anemones.

Should I snorkel?

Of course you should! It’s an exhilarating experience without all the equipment and diving courses. It’s a great middle ground for transitioning if you wish to dive as well. So grab your snorkel and mask, and have no worries. On the islands, and at most resorts, you will find qualified instructors to make sure you are prepared for your snorkel trip, and they will have equipment for you to rent. If you go on a tour out in the open water there will likely be someone watching over all snorkelers. If you are afraid because you can’t swim, just throw a life-jacket on and hop on in the water with no fear.

Night Snorkeling:

For an even greater understanding and experience on what goes on under the sea, why not check it out at night when a hoard of new and exotic animals come out to play. Whales and manta rays float past you in efforts to get a few moments of shut eye. Narrow reef flats that have many channels that go to the outer reefs are often the best spots for getting your head underwater.

Some of the unmissable rides at Orlando’s Walt Disney World


One of the holiday destination trips that I will never forget was a trip I had to Orlando’s Disney World this past season. In essence, I would motivate anyone to Jump on the internet and start looking for Disney Tickets.
It is important to note that Orlando’s Walt Disney World is ranked as the world’s largest vacation center. As a result of this, it is not surprising that it is the most visited park. On my trip to the resort, I realized several unmissable rides that make me want to go there again. The fact that the resort has various different parks that suit people from all age groups gives me the satisfaction and motivation to visit the place again with my family. Although at the beginning my trip difficult to enjoy, some of the rides ensured that I had a wonderful experience not to forget about. Immediately I arrived at the resort, I realized that it has several theme parks, on-site resorts, water parks, video game, mini-golf courses among many luxurious sites. The theme park that fascinated me most was the Magic Kingdom theme park. In essence, this park covers approximately 107 acres of land and has some of the most amazing rides. Here are just a few of my Favorites.

 Pirates of the Caribbean

Being the adventurer that I am, and having been referred to many times by my friends as the female version of Indiana Jones. I am always up for an adventure. And also in my choice of movies, I am always looking to travel in my mind weather it be to far off lands, different centuries, or even a different galaxy, If I can not take my body , I sure as heck relish any opportunity to take my mind.  And the pirates of the Caribbean is among my favorite films, and the ride was just a little bit of a chance to go outside of my head and experience it, even though it was just for a bit,, and just a ride..

 Space Mountain

And here is your chance to check out the Galaxy. I remember this ride as one of my fists from childhood, and it is still quite awesome today, although I do believe when I was a bit younger, I enjoyed it more. nonetheless it is still one of my favorites and a must see for all.

Haunted Mansion

Now this one is also really cool and also a favorite from childhood. Jump on the “Doom Buggy” for an eventful ride of the supernatural, they say there is close to 1,000 ghosts in this place.. Although I was not counting,, but it was as always quite a joy, another one of my reasons for enjoying this ride, is that I love architecture. And I must admit that this ride through this fabulous 18th century estate, had me captivated by the marvelous architecture just as much as the ghosts.

 English: Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, Magic ...Big Thunder Mountain Railroad

Here is another Indiana Jones type ride. At least that is how I think of it. Set up as a scene from the old west. it is a shaky ride, on a runaway rail-cart.

 it’s a small world

This is an all time favorite, and being that I love travel it really touches my heart. Every time I go I think to myself ” It probably wont be as nice now that I am older.” yet every time I get out of this ride, I walk back to the line for one more go, and the whole time humming that catchy tune. ….” it’s a small world after all, it’s a small world after all,, it’s a small… small… World..This is definitely ,one of the best rides. and not to be missed by any, regardless of age group.

The IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth firewo...Fireworks Display

Don’t forget to stick around and top off your night with the fireworks display, it never gets boring and is always packed with people and happiness.

Also you can’t miss the famous Cinderella Castle which has attained an iconic status. Evidence has it that the Castle is the world’s most photographed building. Besides the Magic Kingdom, I also visited the Epcot, the Animal Kingdom and the Hollywood Studios. I also took my time to tour the water parks. The beaches in the water parks thrilled me the most. Blizzard Beach, for instance caught my attention the most. The slides of this park were more thrilling when compared to the Typhoon Lagoon, which is a setting of a beach that is as a result of a fictional typhoon. The last place I visited was the Downtown Disney Area. This is an outdoor complex for entertainment that is very famous. The area is mostly known for its nightlife, shopping and dining facilities. This area also has major establishments such as the Disney Quest Indoor Interactive Theme. Other notable facilities under the Downtown Disney Area include the Cuban Cafe of Bongo, Planet Hollywood, Pleasure Island, Wolfgang Puck among many more others. The existence of several facilities to visit in the area made my trip unforgettable. After spending three days in the Disney World, it was time to travel back home. However, the sweet moments I had will always stay in my memory. The simple life that exists at the place makes it the best place for one to visit. I will always recommend my friends to visit the place during their free time. It was truly a great place to Thrill-me.

Five of the top attractions to visit in Florida


The first time you really get an idea of how large America is as a continent is when you cross the Atlantic Ocean. As a European national your basic idea of a nation state might be something like the UK or Germany or Netherlands. This is not the case with the USA, the closest comparison with Europe (in terms of size) is the European Union. As far as comparisons go that is the furthest that you can get, when you fly in from Europe you realize that the states and Europe might be industrialized nations but the difference between this two sub continents is as stark as day and night.

The article is not a geo political piece but one that chronicles yours truly travel chronicles, the writers pen zooms into the state of Florida and specifically five of the top attractions that you should consider visiting when you land in the USA.

Walt Disney World

This is the largest Disney resort in the USA. It has four theme parks, two golf courses and a myriad resorts. Any one putting up in any of these resorts has their bags carted away from the Orlando International Airport for absolutely free. There is a raft of activities that you could engage in at Disney World. Theme lunches with famous Disney Characters or a round of gold for the adults. Get your Florida attraction tickets to Disney World today;

Universal Orlando

American movies are loved the world over and if you want to see where all the magic takes place come and visit the Universal Orlando studios. These studios are functional and are the locations for the shooting of several runway successful shows and movies. If you like cinematic art this is definitely the place for you;

Sea World Orlando

Kalina at SeaWorld Orlando in 2002You have not been to Florida if you do not check out SeaWorld Orlando. The Americans are known to put up impressive shows and Sea World does not disappoint in this respect. At sea world you enter into another world quiet literally- the marine world. Come and swim with the dolphins and observe turtles, sea lions and sharks in their natural environment and get a new view on matters marine life;

National Naval Aviation Museum

If you are a history buff then America is a nation that teems with a rich history. One place that you can capture a sense of this rich history is the National Naval Aviation Museum. Here you will find in excess of 100 different plane models that have done service for the US Air force. The beauty of this place is that entrance is absolutely free and it is one of the best ways to burn away two or three hours of your time.

St. Andrews State Park

America is known for grand displays and when you step in this park the enormity of that statement actually hits you. The park sits on some 1,200 acres of space and on the lagoon park offers an abundance of shells and fresh clear water. The only payment made here is the entrance fee.

The five attractions listed above are in reality the brightest spots of all Florida attractions. If you ever step on the East Coast of the US ensure that your tour this places after getting your Florida attraction tickets.

Don’t forget travel insurance on your next trip


Surely, life does begin at 50 as I found out a few weeks ago as I embarked on my lovely holiday vacation. By now, all my kids are all grown, have their jobs and businesses and are married with Kids except the youngest one but he is a tough one. Works as an architect and believes he owns the world.

After years of saving the best for my family it was time to take the strong old bones for a vacation for the good work done over the years. With no one expecting financial support from me it was time to fly out of London and see the world first hand.

Cows of the Maasai, Masai Mara in Kenya. Scar ...    After careful planning it was time to see London from the skies. How I had waited for that day. Bringing up kids has made me be always on the lookout and almost always expecting the worst and I have adapted that in everything I indulge in and now I have the last laugh.

I embarked on a three week vacation where I had the pleasure of visiting the great East Africa. I was surprised on landing at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport Kenya’s and East Africa’s busiest airport. The Kenyan people are quite friendly and lively. I was received and taken to my hotel by staff that made me feel at home away from home as though we had known each other for a long time. I found out later that this is the attitude of the African country’s people.

I got an opportunity to sleep in some shelters that were amazingly made deep into the African jungle. I particularly fell in love with the Maasai Mara in Kenya. You sleep deep into the wild but the tents made to look so amazing with five star hospitality. The thing I loved most though was waking up with the little monkeys in the room. The lodges are made with large windows that you can choose to leave open if you want to invite the wild into your tent. The staffs are good enough to tell you about that though so there are no rude surprises in the morning.

I later crossed to Tanzania which also has part of the Mara. I found the Maasai people in the two countries, with Kenya to the north of Tanzania, rather different despite the fact that they both wrap the same kind of clothing and done beautiful beaded ornaments. They are a lovely community and one of the many ethnic groups in the region with Kenya alone having 43 of them.

Dressed up Maasai warriors   They entertain tourists with their beautiful traditional dances that mostly include jumping and chanting that we all found Interesting. The Maasai live alongside the wild animals and graze their cattle in the wild. We were informed that the Maasai warriors called Morans do the grazing and the wild animals know not to attack animals escorted by the warriors wrapped in red.

It was towards the end of my vacation and on my trip back however that I encountered some issues. Being a parent had taught me to leave nothing to chance and so I had taken time to check out over 50s holidays travel insurance. I guess my body is no longer what it used to be but I am grateful I had the cover. The few weeks brought me down with flu and I did not enjoy the last few days as I would have liked. I believe this contributed to my luck of concentration and loss to my luggage. The insurance however came in handy and next time I fly to East Africa I plan to pick up where I left off. Perhaps to the next great wild beast migration.

Article sent in by Donald Young.